The Study Of Language By Yule.
• The Standard Language
It is an idealized variety because it has no specific region and it is associated with administrative, commercial and educational centers regardless of regions.
• Accent And Dialect
Accent is related to aspects of pronunciation that identify where an individual speaker is from, regionally or socially, meanwhile dialect is related to the features of grammar and vocabulary as well as aspects of pronunciation.
It is the study of dialects that distinguishes between two different dialects of the same language (whose speakers can understand each other) and two different languages (whose speakers can’t understand each other).
• Isoglosses And Dialect boundaries
An isogloss represents a boundary between the areas with different linguistic features. But when a number of isoglosses come together forming a more solid line, they indicate a dialect boundary instead of just an isogloss.
• The Dialect Continuum
At most dialect boundary areas, one regional dialect or language variety merges into another. So, we can see regional variation as existing along a dialect continuum rather than as having sharp breaks from one region to the next.
• Bilingualism And Diglossia
Bilingualism tends to be a feature of the minority group in which these groups grow up in one linguistic community. On the other hand, diglossia is the acquisition of language that that is used locally and for everyday affairs, for example, the one learned in school and used for important matters.
• Language Planning
In countries that there are multiple dialects and languages it is needed that a language planning determinates which language should be used for official businesses.
• Pidgins And Creoles
A pidgin is a variety of language that for some practical purpose, such as trading among groups of people who had a lot of contact but who did not know each other’s language. So it would have no native speakers. However, when this variety develops beyond its role as a trade or contact language and becomes the first language of a social community, it is described as a creole.
It is used for the study of the relationship between language and society.
• Social Dialects
It is concerned with speakers in towns and cities.
• Education And Occupation
A personal idiolect refers to how we tend to sound like others with whom we share similar educational backgrounds and/or occupations.
• Social Markers
It is the different type of speeches that can be found between different social classes.
• Speech Style And Style-Shifting
Speech style is a social feature of language use, the formal style or “careful style” and the informal style or “casual style”. Meanwhile style-shifting is the movement from one style to another.
It is form as a way of explaining the direction in which certain individuals change their speech. Over prestige is when the change is in the direction of a form that is more frequent in the speech of those perceived to have higher social status. But covert prestige is the hidden status of a speech style as having positive value may explain why certain groups do not exhibit style-shifting to the same extent as other groups.
• Speech Accommodation
It is defined as our ability to modify our speech style toward or away from the perceived style of the person(s) we are talking to. Convergence: We adopt a speech style that attempts to reduce social distance and use forms that are similar to those used by the person we are talking to. Divergence: We use a speech style to emphasize social distance between others by using forms that are distinctly different.
• Register and Jargon
A register is a conventional way of using language that is appropriate in a specific context, which may be identified as situational (church), occupational (among lawyer) or topical (talking about language). But a jargon is special technical vocabulary associated with a specific area of work or interest.
It is more typically used among young people outside the high-status groups. It is a “colloquial speech used in everyday terms.
• African American English
It is also known as Black English or Ebonics, AAE is a variety used by many African Americans in many regions in USA. Social barriers such as discrimination and segregation serve to create marked differences between social dialects. In the case of AAE, those different features have often been stigmatized as “bad” language, following a regular pattern whereby the social practices, especially speech, of dominated groups are treated as “abnormal” by those dominant groups who are in charge of defining “normal”.
It refer to all the ideas and assumptions about the nature of things and people that we learn when we become members of social groups.
It is a group with certain characteristics in common such as vocabulary.
• Kinship Terms
They are lexicalized words that are used to refer to people who are members of the same family. But each language differs on how they put the relatives in different positions.
• Time Concepts
They are abstract concepts that we inherit as a conceptual system that operates with amounts of time as common categories.
• Linguistic Relativity
It studies how people perceive the world.
• The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
This hypothesis focuses on how different languages classify each word either abstract, animate, male or female. For example, some languages or dialects classify clouds as animate objects while in English they are not.
English does lexicalize some conceptual distinctions in the area of “snow”. We inherit a language used to report knowledge, so we would expect that language to influence the organization or our knowledge in some way. However, we also inherit to influence the ability to manipulate and be creative with that language in order to express our perceptions.
• Cognitive Categories
It is the analyzing cognition process or how people think from others cultures determine the characteristics of the world.
They are normally used in connection with numbers to indicate type of things.
• Social Categories
They are words that are used to distinguish how see the other person in our social context.
• Address Terms
We use these words to create a concept of closeness by using specific vocabulary that is not used in a normal context (saying brother to another person that you do not know in order to get some money).
It is the distinction between male and female.
• Gendered Words
They are words that are used only by men or women.
• Gendered Speech
Many of the features in woman’s speech facilitate the exchange of turns, allowing others to speak, with the effect that interaction becomes a shared activity. Interaction among men appears to be organized in a more hierarchical way, with the right to speak or “having the floor” being treated as the goal. Men generally take longer turns at speaking and, in many social contexts may be the only ones allowed to talk.
One effect on the different styles developed by men and women is that certain features become very salient in cross-gender interactions.
In the same-gender conversations, women produce more back-channels as indicators of listening and paying attention. The term back channel describes the use of words or sounds by listeners while someone else is speaking.
Yule, G. (2016). The Study of Language. UK.: CUP. Ch 18, 19, 20.
Yule, G. (2016). The Study of Language. UK.: CUP. Ch 18, 19, 20.